Country Summaries

An overview of each of our member countries throughout the Asia Pacific and the issues and challenges they face around HIV, viral hepatitis and sexual health.

The epidemiology of HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections varies greatly across the regions, countries and organisations are at different stages of development and programs may be more or less developed in relation to one disease area, professional or community group. Learnings, skills and experiences from one area are often transferable to another and opportunities for sharing can maximise impact. The Network aims to explore these area for collaboration.

These country summaries were developed from available published sources. They were initially published in the handbook for the first assembly. Subsequent to that, as new countries join the network, country summaries will be added. The summaries are kept brief and are maintained by our research students on placement from the University of NSW. This is seen as a way of making sure that our students have gain an understanding of contemporary epidemiology of HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections across Asia and The Pacific regions. They also get to see first-hand how these conditions are differently dealt with in different settings.

Countries are listed alphabetically across Asia. The pacific is presented as one region and where individual island nation data is available it is also reported.

Australia

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HIV An estimated 27,150 people in Australia are HIV positive, of whom an estimated 3,350 (12%) are unaware of their HIV-positive status. In Australia, HIV transmission continues to occur primarily through sexual contact between men. In 2014, 1,081 people were diagnosed with HIV. The number of newly diagnosed HIV infections in Australia has remained stable for the past three years, with 1 081 cases in 2014, 1 028 in 2013 and 1 064 in 2012. Of all HIV diagnoses made in Australia in 2014, 70% of transmissions occurred among men who have sex with men, 5% of transmissions were attributed to either male-to-male sex or injecting drugRead More →

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Cambodia

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HIV There are some 75,000 people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Cambodia in 2014. UNAIDS has estimated approximately 694 new infections in 2014.HIV prevalence in Cambodia among general population adults aged 15 to 49 was estimated at 0.7% in 2013. 2,600 deaths occurred in year 2014 related to AIDS. Incidence rate has decreased generally after 1998. However, along with the decline in HIV prevalence among the general population, it was noted that Key Populations such as Entertainment Workers (EWs), drug users, Trans genders (TG) and Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) has remained the target group that required special attention in the provision ofRead More →

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Hong Kong

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HIV  As of September 2015, there are 7,534 people living with HIV and 1,626 people living with AIDS in Hong Kong. Reported cases of HIV have increased each year in Hong Kong since first reported incidence in 1984 with slight drop around 2010-11. Prevalence of HIV/AIDs is higher among males as compared to females with estimated 5,892 males living with HIV as compared to 1,453 women. Prevalence of AIDS is also high among males when compared to women. Prevalence of HIV/AIDS is high among people of Chinese background. People in the age group of 20-49 comprises as majority of the cases of HIV/AIDS with highestRead More →

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India

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HIV With estimated 2.1 million people living with HIV in 2013, India has the third largest HIV epidemic in the world. In 2014, it is estimated that 130,000 people died due to AIDS. However there is recent decline in death related to AIDS. Overall, India’s HIV epidemic is slowing down, with a 19% decline in new HIV infections (130,000 in 2013), and a 38% decline in AIDS-related deaths between 2005 and 2013. HIV epidemic is India is mainly heterogeneous and there are wide variations in the spread of epidemic in different geographical locations. Key population (KP) affected are female sex workers (FSWs), men who haveRead More →

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Japan

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HIV/AIDS A total of 15,812 cases of HIV infection and 7,203 AIDS cases have been reported as of the end of 2013 by AIDS Surveillance Committee, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Until 2008, there has been an increase in number of reported cases of HIV and AIDS reached its peak in 2010, but this has largely level off since. This increase reporting can be attributed to increase in testing and awareness about tests. In 2013, 1,106 HIV infection cases and 484 AIDS cases were reported, an increase of 104 and 37 cases over the previous year, respectively. Dominant route of transmission is sexual contact.Read More →

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Indonesia

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HIV It is estimated that in 2014, there are 660,000 people living with HIV in Indonesia. Prevalence rate is 0.5% in adults aged 15 to 49. Of 660,000 people living with HIV, 230,000 are women aged 15 years and above and 14,000 children aged 0 to 14 years. 34,000 people have died due to AIDS by 2014. Approximately 69,000 new infections were diagnosed in year 2014. Unprotected sex particularly among people with high number of sexual partners and unsafe injecting behaviour were considered as dominant mode of transmission of HIV infection in Indonesia. However there is a shift to unsafe sexual behaviour becoming dominant causeRead More →

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Laos

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HIV It is estimated that currently 11,000 people are living with HIV in Laos, with prevalence rate of 0.29% among adults aged 15-49. The prevalence among adults has increased from 0.16% in 2003 to 0.29 % in 2014. Number of new infections in year 2014 is < 1000 and number of people died due to AIDS is estimated to be < 500. The highest prevalence of HIV can be found in key affected populations (KAP) primarily among men who have sex with men at 1.6%, followed by drug users at 1.5% and sex workers at 1.4%. Sexual activity is the primary mode of transmission, accountingRead More →

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Malaysia

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HIV Malaysia is estimated to have about 91,848 people living with HIV (PLHIV) by end of 2014. During the same period, the national surveillance system had reported a cumulative of 105,189 HIV cases, 21,384 AIDS and 17,096 deaths related to HIV/AIDS giving total reported PLHIV of 88,093. 6,200 new infections occurred in 2014, with 9,000 AIDS related deaths in same year. Over period of 29 years, Malaysia has observed tremendous biomedical and behavioural advances in the HIV prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. As a result, there has been a significant reduction of new cases by almost half from 28.4 per 100,000 populations in 2002 to 11.7Read More →

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Papua New Guinea

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HIV Estimated prevalence rate of HIV and AIDS among adults aged 15 to 49 is 0.7% at the end of 2014Estimated number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) is 37,000. Of these women aged 15 and above living with HIV are 19,000. Approximately 4,300 children under 14 years are living with HIV. ADIS related deaths were less than 1000 in 2014. Estimated 2,000 new cases were diagnosed in 2014. Rate of new diagnosis has decline since 1999 but has remain stable since last few years. It is thought that HIV epidemic in PNG is concentrated among certain geographical locations and certain groups. Main mode ofRead More →

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Myanmar

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HIV  Estimated rate of HIV prevalence among 15 years and older in Myanmar is 0.54% in 2014. Epidemiological modelling suggests that there are around 212,000 people living with HIV in Myanmar and 9,000 new infections occurred in 2014. In the same year approximately 10,000 deaths were related to AIDS. In 2000, Myanmar recorded highest number of people diagnosed with HIV. This has declined since then with decline in deaths related to AIDS. HIV epidemic is concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PWID) and female sex workers (FSW). Rate of infection in key population is roughly as follows: FSWRead More →

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Philippines

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HIV As of the end of 2014, estimated 36,000 people are living with HIV. Prevalence rate among adults aged 15 years and above is <0.1%. Number of women aged 15 and above is estimated to be 4,100. Number of deaths attributed to AIDS was less than 500 in 2014. 6,400 new cases were diagnosed in 2014. Primary mode of HIV transmission is sexual contact accounting for 93% of cases since 1984. Before 2008, heterosexual contact was main mode of transmission but since then more cases have been diagnosed with homosexual contact (gay and bisexual men, men having sex with men). National prevalence rate of HIVRead More →

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Republic of Korea

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HIV It is estimated that approximately 10,425 adults and children are living with HIV in 2013. Reported number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in 2009 was 9,500. 1,013 new infected cases were recorded in year 2013. Data about number of deaths due to Aids is not available for 2013. Number of new cases reported has increased over years. 888 new cases were recorded in 2011 as compared to 1,013 reported in 2013. The primary mode of transmission of HIV cases reported from 1985 to 2007 was heterosexual sex at 51%, followed by homosexual sex at 33%. Over 75% of incidence occurred in age groupRead More →

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Singapore

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HIV The prevalence of known people living with HIV (PLHIV) among the resident population aged 15 years and above was 0.15% in 2014. It is estimated that there were 6685 PLHIV at the end of 2014. Of these 1737 (26%) have died. 456 new cases were diagnosed in 2014. This is very similar to number of new cases diagnosed in 2013 (454 new cases) and 2012 (469). Population group affected with HIV epidemic is predominantly male. Male to female ratio is 10:1. Mode of transmission is mainly sexual, with 59% cases acquired through heterosexual contact and 39% through homosexual contact. As of the end ofRead More →

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Sri Lanka

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HIV HIV prevalence rate among adults in Sri Lanka is <0.1%, with estimated 3,300 people living with HIV (PLHIV) by the end of 2014. Number of deaths due to AIDS was less than 200. Approximately 1000 women 15 years and over are living with HIV by the end of 2014. There is increasing trend in diagnosis of new cases of HIV and AIDS. Among reported HIV positive cases, approximately 25% of the cases were found to be with advanced disease (AIDS stage). Mode of transmission of HIV is mainly heterogeneous sexual contact accounting for approximately 78% of cases, followed by same sexual/Bisexual transmission amounting toRead More →

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Taiwan

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HIV As of the end of 2014, total number of people living with HIV and AIDS in Taiwan is estimated to be 29,665. Of there 99% are local Taiwanese people and 92% are male. In year 2014, there were 2,236 new cases of HIV and 1,387 new cases of AIDS were recorded. Estimated death toll due to AIDS is 4,600. The population affected with HIV/AIDS in Taiwan is young. Nearly 43% of people diagnosed with HIV are in age group of 20-29 years. 37.5% of people with AIDS are in age group of 30-39. Prevalence of HIV/AIDS is high among homosexuals accounting for 47.3% ofRead More →

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Thailand

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HIV Prevalence of HIV among adults aged 15-49 years is estimated to be 1.1% in 2014, with estimated 450,000 people living with HIV (PLHIV). 19,000 people died due to AIDS in 2014. It is estimated that approximately 190,000 women aged 15 years and above are living with HIV and 6,900 children between 0-14 years are living with HIV at the end of 2014. 7,900 new infections occurred in year 2014. Overall there is a decline in new infections and death rate related to AIDS. HIV prevalence is concentrated among female sex workers (FSW), male sex workers (MSW), men having sex with men (MSM) and peopleRead More →

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Timor-Leste

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HIV It is estimated that around 464 people are living with HIV in 2014. Of these, 227 are women above 15 years. Prevalence rate in Timor-Leste is quite low with 0.08% among 15 years and over. There were 89 new infections in 2014 (46 men and 43 women). 7 people died due to AIDS in 2014. Cumulative death toll due AIDS is estimated to be 63 in 2014. Modelling data also suggests a rising trend of the HIV prevalence and incidence in the country in the next several years. HIV prevalence is concentrated among female sex workers (FSW) and Men having sex with men (MSM).Read More →

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Viet Nam

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HIV There are approximately 256,000 people living with HIV (PLHIV) in 2014 in Vietnam. Prevalence rate among adults aged 15-49 years is 0.5%. Approximately 77,000 women aged 15 years and above are living with HIV. 5,300 children between 0-14 years are thought to have HIV. In year 2014, 11,000 people die due to AIDS in Vietnam. Rate of new infections is declining and rate of PLHIV is increasing. HIV epidemic is concentrated primarily among female sex workers (FSW), people who inject drugs (PWID) and men having sex with men (MSM). Also increasing number of new infections is occurring between intimate partner relationships. In 2013, theRead More →

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